History and Background
The first English settlers arrived on Aquidneck Island in 1636 following a remarkable woman named Ann Hutchinson. She had been driven out of Boston for her religious beliefs which challenged the very foundations of Puritanism. She and her band of supporters followed the path taken by Roger Williams when he, too, was banished from Massachusetts for religious reasons. After consulting with Williams, her group purchased Aquidneck Island (later named Rhode Island) from the native Americans.
What the English settlers found on their arrival was hardly an empty wilderness. Native people had been in the area for at least 5,000 years, and had established sophisticated land management and fishing practices. Current evidence points to the existence of a large summer settlement in what is now downtown Newport, and the work these native people had done clearing the land was one of the factors that made this area attractive to English settlers.
Ann Hutchinsons group settled at the northern end of the island in an area known as Pocasett. In just over a year, however, that settlement split in two. A group lead by William Coddington and Nicholas Easton moved south to form Newport in 1639.
By the time they arrived in Newport, these many of these settlerss were becoming Baptists and embraced a belief that was central for the Baptists of Europe at the time the separation of church and state. These early settlers founded their new town on the basis of liberty of conscience and religion and Newport became one of the first secular democracies in the Atlantic world. The founders commitment to religious freedom had a profound impact on all aspects of the towns subsequent history.
Among the religious groups attracted to this haven in a world of threatening intolerance were Quakers and Jews. Together they transformed the town from a small agricultural outpost to one of colonial Americas five leading seaports. The Jews came in the 1650s their real contribution to the cultural and economic life came in the 1750s. The Quakers also came to Newport in the late 1650s. The Society of Friends flourished and grew, and, by 1700, over half of Newports population were members of the Society of Friends. The Quakers became the most influential of Newport's numerous early congregations and they dominated the political, social and economic life of the town into the 18th century, and their "plain style" of living was reflected in Newport's architecture, decorative arts and early landscape.
The Quakers neighborhood on Eastons Point was home to some of the most highly skilled craftsman in colonial America. Among the best known of these were the Townsend and Goddard families, who made extraordinarily fine and beautiful furniture.
During the 17 th century the cornerstones of Newports architectural heritage were laid. The buildings that survive from that period - the Old Stone Mill, the Wanton-Lyman-Hazard House, and the White Horse Tavern - are part of Newports rich, architectural tapestry that today also includes the great "cottages" along Bellevue Avenue.
Trade and the export of rum, candles, fish, furniture, silver, and other value-added goods were the main engines of economic growth during the 18 th century, activities inexorably linked to Newports participation in the slave trade and widespread ownership of slaves by families throughout the city.
During this time the waterfront bustled with activity with over 150 separate wharves and hundreds of shops crowded along the harbor between Long Wharf and the southern end of the harbor. As Newports trade throughout the Atlantic basin grew, the city became an epicenter in the development of modern American capitalism.
By the 1760s Newport had emerged as one of the five leading ports in colonial North America, along with Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Charleston. The economic growth spurred a building boom which included hundreds of houses and many of the internationally important landmarks that survive today, such as Trinity Church, the Colony House, Redwood Library, and the Brick Market (now home to the Museum of Newport History).
Newport helped lead the way toward the Revolution and independence. Because the city was such a well-known hot-bed of revolutionary fervor, and because of its long history of disdain for royal and parliamentary efforts to control its trade, the British occupied Newport from 1776 to 1779, and over half of the towns population fled. The British remained in Newport despite efforts to drive them out by patriot forces in partnership with the French for the first time in the Revolution. Eventually the British did withdraw and the French, under the leadership of Admiral deTiernay and General Rochambeau, began a sojourn in Newport that lasted until 1783 until they left Newport on their historic march to Yorktown to assist in the decisive victory there.
The British occupation had done irreparable damage to Newports economy. Faced with a bleak future, Newporters in the early 19th century was forced to re-invent itself. Newport had been bypassed by industrialization and its landscape became frozen in time. Ironically, this became an asset for the town as it transformed itself into a summer resort and used its picturesque qualities to advantage in attracting summer visitors. In the antebellum period, Newport became a center for an influential group of artists, writers, scientists, educators, architects, theologians, architects, and landscape designers. These men and women reshaped the cultural underpinnings of American life, and included Henry and William James, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Julia Ward Howe, William Ellery Channing, William Barton Rogers (the founder of M.I.T.), Alexander Agassiz, and many more.
Later summer colonists during the Gilded Age included elite familes from South Carolina, the King and Griswold families of New York, and later the Vanderbilts. These families and many more whose presence here helped transform Newport into the Queen of the Resorts, built the mansions for which Newport has become famous, employing architects Richard Morris Hunt, McKim Mead and White, Peabody and Stearns, and others. Several of these mansions have become major tourist attractions.
Newports history has always been tied to the sea. During the colonial period the citys harbor teemed with trading ships. With the arrival of the Summer Colony and the New York Yacht Club, Newport was on its way to becoming a yachting capital. The Yacht Club brought the famed Americas cup to Newport in the 1930s where it stayed until lost to the Australians in 1983. The fishing industry is still a vital part of Newport's economy, as is the United States Navy, which has been in Newport since the 1860s. Its major components were Naval War College and the Torpedo Station (now Naval Undersea Warfare Center) both of which were founded immediately after the Civil War. The Navy presence on Aquidneck Island grew and eventually included the Naval Education Training Center and the North Atlantic Destroyer Squadron which had its home port at the Newport Naval base until the 1970s. Despite the loss of the fleet, the Navy is still the largest employer in the area, bringing many industry and service business to the area as well.
In the late 19th and 20th centuries various groups such as the Irish, Greeks, Italians, Portuguese, Filipinos, Cambodians, and Hispanics joined groups such as Jews, African Americans, and Native Americans who had been in Newport for some time, enriching the ethnic diversity of the town. African Americans from Virginia and other areas moved to Newport and joined a thriving community that continues to be a vital part of Newports history. The Irish came to Newport in the 1820s, drawn here by the work available to them at Fort Adams. Despite laws from 1719 that discriminated against Catholics by denying them the right to become "freemen", Catholics who immigrated to Aquidneck Island found a relatively tolerant haven from the virulent anti-Catholic and Irish sentiments in Boston and other towns at the time. Many of the Irish families who made Newport home during the early 19 th century still live and prosper in Newport, maintaining close links with the land of their ancestors.
After World War II, one of the most successful historic preservation movements in the country saved hundreds of structures throughout Newport County. That effort began in the 1840s when George Champlin Mason, writer and editor of the Newport Mercury (a weekly newspaper still published today by the Newport Daily News ) fought to save Trinity Church. He helped found the Newport Historical Society, which preserved the Seventh Day Baptist Meeting House in 1884, and later acquired and restored the Wanton-Lyman-Hazard House, and the Great Friends Meeting House. Other groups who have taken the preservation movement to heroic levels include the Preservation Society of Newport County, the Newport Restoration Foundation, and several grassroots organizations such as Operation Clapboard.
With the success of the preservation movement, Newport began to recover from the economic downturn that came when the destroyer fleet was pulled out of Newport. The Navy continued to lead the way, but a new kind of tourism - now refered to as "Heritage Tourism"- began to develop slowly. Visitors to Newport now come to learn about the areas remarkable history as well as to enjoy the beauty and the hospitality of the city by the sea. There is, of course, more than mansions for visitors to see in Newport. There are beautifully restored colonial landmarks for visitors to explore along with, fine small museums, such as the Museum of Newport History in the Brick Market which is a perfect place to begin a visit to the area where visitors can get an overview of the citys history. The Newport Art Museum, the Tennis Hall of Fame, Fort Adams, Redwood Library, Touro Synagogue, Trinity Church, and many other attractions offer the visitors an unrivalled opportunity to explore aspects of this countrys history. Music festivals, such as the Jazz and Folk Festivals and the Newport Music Festival are all major events drawing thousands to Newport every summer.
The stereotype of Newport solely as a playground for the wealthy during and after the Gilded Age are in contrast with local reality. While Newport continues to be home to summer visitors of dazzling wealth, and while some of them have made Newport their year round home, most of the residents of the City by the Sea continue to be middle and working class. Given Newports image, it is ironic that the city also has the largest number of low-income housing units in the state of Rhode Island.
Newports history is remarkable in many ways, but perhaps the most unique aspect is the fact that so much of its history is still visible on the landscape in an unparalleled concentration of preserved architecture. It continues its commitment to liberty of conscience and religion and Newports resilience and creativity in meeting the economic changes that have overtaken it offers strong proof that diversity works in keeping the city alive and vibrant.
The Newport Historical Society
The Newport Historical Society was chartered in 1854 to collect and preserve books, manuscripts, and objects pertaining to Newport's history. The Society's collections originated thirty years earlier as the "Southern Cabinet" of the Rhode Island Historical Society. By 1853, several prominent Newporters recognized the need for a separate organization specifically devoted to preserving the history of Newport County, and the collections of the Southern Cabinet were reorganized under the auspices of the Newport Historical Society.
The first quarters of the Newport Historical Society were temporary. Meetings moved from member's home to member's home, and lectures were held in rented halls. By 1884, however, the Society was suffering from growing pains. It needed a permanent space to house its collections. After some deliberation, the Society purchased the old Seventh Day Baptist Meeting House (1730). This was arguably their first real artifact, and certainly one of the first examples of adaptive reuse of an historic structure with deliberate homage to the structure's own integrity. It is a responsibility the Newport Historical Society has taken seriously and managed well since 1884.
The influx of gifts was gratifying, but the membership soon realized there were untapped resources that the current building, surrounded as it was by stables, paint shops, and other fire hazards, could not safely accommodate. In 1887, the Society purchased a site on Touro Street and in the fall of that year moved its building there.
As the holdings of the Society continued to increase, the need for more space and security became evident. Ground was broken in 1902 for a brick library building on the Touro Street side of the lot. The new building provided office space for the Society, a fireproof vault for historic documents, and a library. In 1915, the meeting house was detached from the library and moved to the rear of the lot. A three story brick building was constructed between the library and the meeting house. Brick veneer, a slate roof, and steel shutters were added to the exterior of the meeting house to make its exterior covering consistent with the adjoining structures, and to provide added protection from the weather and the threat of fire.
Sources : "Our Cabinet of Curiosities: The Early Collections of the Newport Historical Society," by M. Joan Youngken, Newport History: the Quarterly Journal of the Newport Historical Society , vol. 66, part 3, no. 228, Winter 1995; "Entering Into Covenant: The History of Seventh Day Baptists in Newport," by Don A. Sanford, Newport History: the Quarterly Journal of the Newport Historical Society , vol. 66, part 1, no. 226, Summer 1994.